What is Vanadium?

Elemental vanadium is a soft silvery-grey mineral that is classified as a ductile transition metal. It has good resistance to corrosion and it is stable against alkalis, sulfuric and hydrochloric acids.

Vanadium forms stable, concentrated electrolytic solutions in four neighboring oxidation states. The oxidation state of unreacted Vanadium is zero, whereas its fully reacted state is +5. The different states can be clearly identified by changing colors (+2 (lilac), +3 (green), +4 (blue) and +5 (yellow)).

Vanadium makes up about 0.012% of the earths crust and while metallic vanadium is not found in nature it is known to exist in about 65 different minerals (eg Carnotite, Vanadinite, Francevillite).



Vanadium also occurs in deposits of: 

  • Phosphate rock
  • Titaniferous magnetite (Mount Peake)
  • Uraniferous sandstone and siltstone
  • Bauxite, and
  • Carboniferous deposits of coal, crude oil, oil shale and tar sands.

Vanadium is also produced as a by-product of the iron and steel industry.  Iron ores containing amounts of V on the order of 1.0%-1.5% are processed in a furnace, creating slags that may contain as much as 25% vanadium pentoxide.

World vanadium resources are thought to exceed 63 million tonnes.

Red Vanadinite Crystals


 Vanadinite Stone